PachycondylaSmith, 1858validmasculine

Extant: 55 valid species (31 synonyms, 6 homonyms, 2 unavailable), 15 valid subspecies (11 synonyms, 1 homonym, 2 unavailable)

Fossil: 17 valid species

Pachycondyla Smith, 1858aSmith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. [1858-03-27] PDFExternal_link: 105 . Type-species: Formica crassinoda, by subsequent designation of Emery, 1901bEmery, C. 1901b. Notes sur les sous-familles des Dorylines et Ponérines (Famille des Formicides). Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 45:32-54. [1901-03-07] PDFExternal_link: 42. AntWeb AntWiki
Pachycondyla in Poneridae: Smith, 1858aSmith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. [1858-03-27] PDFExternal_link: 105; Smith, 1871bSmith, F. 1871b. A catalogue of the aculeate Hymenoptera and Ichneumonidae of India and the Eastern Archipelago. [concl.]. Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology 11:349-415. [1871-12-20] PDFExternal_link: 324. Pachycondyla in Ponerinae: Mayr, 1862Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12:649-776. [1862] PDFExternal_link: 713 [Poneridae]; Mayr, 1865Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Novara Expedition 1865. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. [1865-12-14]External_link: 13 [Poneridae]; Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDFExternal_link}: 32. Pachycondyla in Pachycondylinae, Pachycondylini: Ashmead, 1905cAshmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Canadian Entomologist 37:381-384. [1905-11-01] PDFExternal_link: 382. Pachycondyla in Ponerinae, Ponerini: Emery, 1895lEmery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 8:685-778. [1895-10-18] PDFExternal_link: 767; Forel, 1895bForel, A. 1895b. A fauna das formigas do Brazil. Boletim do Museu Paraense de Historia Natural e Ethnographia 1:89-139. [1895-04] PDFExternal_link: 114; Forel, 1899bForel, A. 1899b. Formicidae. Dummy reference. Biologia Centrali-Americana Hym 3:169.External_link: 10; Wheeler, 1910aWheeler, W. M. 1910a. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. [1910-03]External_link: 135; Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDFExternal_link: 73 [subtribe Pachycondylini]; Arnold, 1915Arnold, G. 1915. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part I. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:1-159. [1915-02-11]External_link: 53; Forel, 1917Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 51:229-253. [1917-03-08] PDFExternal_link: 237; Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139.External_link: 648; all subsequent authors.
Genus Pachycondyla references
Mayr, 1862Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12:649-776. [1862] PDFExternal_link: 719 (diagnosis); Roger, 1863bRoger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 7(Beilage):1-65. [1863-06]External_link: 16, 17, 18 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863aMayr, G. 1863a. Formicidarum index synonymicus. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 13:385-460. [1863] PDFExternal_link: 397, 428, 439, 440 (catalogue); Mayr, 1865Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Novara Expedition 1865. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. [1865-12-14]External_link: 13, 15 (Bothroponera, Pachycondyla, Megaponera, Paltothyreus diagnoses); Mayr, 1867aMayr, G. 1867a. Adnotationes in monographiam formicidarum Indo-Neerlandicarum. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 10:33-117. [1867] PDFExternal_link: 82 (Bothroponera diagnosis); Mayr, 1870aMayr, G. 1870a. Formicidae novogranadenses. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. Abteilung I 61:370-417. [1870-04] PDFExternal_link: 396 (Colombia + Panama (? = New Grenada) species key); Emery, 1887eEmery, C. 1887e. Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine). Dummy reference. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 25[=(2)5]:427-432, 465-473.External_link: 18 (footnote) (Asia & Australia Bothroponera species key); Emery, 1890bEmery, C. 1890b. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887 - Avril 1888). Formicides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (6)10:55-76. [1890-08-08]External_link: 71 (Neotropical species key); Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDFExternal_link: 30, 31, 32, 35 (Ectomomyrmex, Megaponera, Ophthalmopone, Paltothyreus, Pachycondyla, Bothroponera catalogues); Forel, 1900fForel, A. 1900f. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part VII. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 13:303-332. [1900-07-29] PDFExternal_link: 321 (India & Sri Lanka Ectomomyrmex species key); Bingham, 1903Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. [1903] PDFExternal_link: 86, 91, 96, 101 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma Ectomomyrmex, Pseudoponera, Bothroponera, Brachyponera species keys); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDFExternal_link: 62 (Paltothyreus diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDFExternal_link: 67 (Megaponera diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDFExternal_link: 69 (Megaponera (Hagensia) and Ophthalmopone diagnoses, catalogues); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDFExternal_link: 70 (Neoponera diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDFExternal_link: 73 (diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDFExternal_link: 75 (Pachycondyla (Bothroponera) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDFExternal_link: 78 (Pachycondyla (Ectomomyrmex) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDFExternal_link: 80 (Euponera diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDFExternal_link: 80 (Euponera (Mesoponera) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDFExternal_link: 83 (Euponera (Brachyponera) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDFExternal_link: 84 (Euponera (Trachymesopus) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDFExternal_link: 86 (Pseudoponera diagnosis, catalogue); Arnold, 1915Arnold, G. 1915. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part I. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:1-159. [1915-02-11]External_link: 43, 46, 49, 53, 63 (Paltothyreus, Megaponera, Ophthalmopone, Pachycondyla, Euponera diagnoses); Arnold, 1915Arnold, G. 1915. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part I. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:1-159. [1915-02-11]External_link: 50, 55, 64 (South Africa Ophthalmopone, Bothroponera, Euponera (Mesoponera) species keys); Gallardo, 1918cGallardo, A. 1918c. Las hormigas de la República Argentina. Subfamilia Ponerinas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 30:1-112. [1918-12-15] PDFExternal_link: 56, 66 (Argentina Neoponera, Mesoponera, keys); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139.External_link: 72 (Afrotropical Bothroponera species key); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139.External_link: 60, 63, 69, 81 (Paltothyreus, Megaponera, Bothroponera, Euponera diagnoses); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139.External_link: 763, 766, 768, 769, 774, 780 (Afrotropical Paltothyreus, Megaponera, Ophthalmopone, Bothroponera, Ectomomyrmex, Euponera, Pseudoponera, Cryptopone catalogues); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139.External_link: 1007, 1008 (Malagasy Bothroponera, Euponera catalogues); Arnold, 1926Arnold, G. 1926. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Appendix. Annals of the South African Museum 23:191-295. [1926-02] PDFExternal_link: 203 (South Africa Hagensia species key); Santschi, 1935bSantschi, F. 1935b. Hymenoptera. I. Formicidae. Mission Scientifique de l'Omo 2:255-277. [1935]External_link: 259 (Africa Mesoponera, key); Creighton, 1950aCreighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 104:1-585. [1950-04] PDFExternal_link: 45 (North America Euponera species key); Arnold, 1951Arnold, G. 1951. The genus Hagensia Forel (Formicidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 14:53-56. [1951-05-31] PDFExternal_link: 53 (Hagensia species key); Chapman & Capco, 1951Chapman, J. W.; Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monographs of the Institute of Science and Technology. Manila 1:1-327. [1951] PDFExternal_link: 49, 60, 63, 74 (Asia Bothroponera, Ectmomomyrmex, Euponera, Pseudoponera checklists); Arnold, 1952aArnold, G. 1952a. New species of African Hymenoptera. No. 10. Occasional Papers of the National Museum of Southern Rhodesia 2:460-493. [1952-07-02] PDFExternal_link: 461 (South Africa Bothroponera, key); Bernard, 1953bBernard, F. 1953b ("1952"). La réserve naturelle intégrale du Mt Nimba. XI. Hyménoptères Formicidae. Mémoires de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire 19:165-270. [1953-03] PDFExternal_link: 191 (Guinea Euponera (Xiphopelta) species key); Brown, 1958hBrown, W. L., Jr. 1958h. A review of the ants of New Zealand. Acta Hymenopterologica 1:1-50. [1958-07-30] PDFExternal_link: 20 (New Zealand species); Wilson, 1958gWilson, E. O. 1958g. Studies on the ant fauna of Melanesia III. Rhytidoponera in western Melanesia and the Moluccas. IV. The tribe Ponerini. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 119:303-371. [1958-08] PDFExternal_link: 346, 362 (Melanesia Brachyponera, Ectomomyrmex species keys); Kempf, 1961bKempf, W. W. 1961b. A survey of the ants of the soil fauna in Surinam (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Studia Entomologica 4:481-524. [1961-10-10] PDFExternal_link: 192 (Brazil species key); Brown, 1963: 6, 9 (reviews of Trachymesopus & Ectomomyrmex); Kempf, 1964eKempf, W. W. 1964e. Miscellaneous studies on Neotropical ants. III. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Studia Entomologica 7:45-71. [1964-12-10] PDFExternal_link: 51 (Neotropical Pachycondyla species key); Kusnezov, 1969Kusnezov, N. 1969. Nuevas especies de hormigas. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 24:33-38. [1969-07] PDFExternal_link: 36 (Argentina Neoponera species key); Kempf, 1972bKempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical. Studia Entomologica 15:3-344. [1972-08-25] PDFExternal_link: 141, 160, 174, 248, 251, 257 (Neotropical Mesoponera, Neoponera, Pachycondyla, Termitopone, Trachymesopus, Wadeura catalogues); Alayo, 1974Alayo, P. 1974. Introducción al estudio de los Himenópteros de Cuba. Superfamilia Formicoidea. Serie Biológica. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba 53:1-58. [1974]External_link: 7 (Cuba species key); Smith, 1979Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V.; Hurd, P. D.; Smith, D. R.; Burks, B. D. (eds.) 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. i-xvi, 1199-2209. [1979]External_link: 1339, 1341 (North America, Pachycondyla, Brachyponera catalogues); Taylor & Brown, 1985Taylor, R. W.; Brown, D. R. 1985. Formicoidea. Zoological Catalogue of Australia 2:1-149, 306-348. [1985]External_link: 21, 23, 28, 29, 34, 34, 52 (Australia, catalogue); Taylor, 1987aTaylor, R. W. 1987a. A checklist of the ants of Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) Division of Entomology Report 41:1-92. [1987-06] PDFExternal_link: 9, 23, 26, 39, 80 (Australia, New Caledonia & New Zealand checklists); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1989: 18 (Japan Ectomomyrmex, Brachyponera, Trachymesopus species key); Brandão, 1991Brandão, C. R. F. 1991. Adendos ao catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 35:319-412. [1991-08-31] PDFExternal_link: 354, 360, 365, 381, 382 (Neotropical catalogue); Xu, 1994bXu, Z. 1994b. A taxonomic study of the ant genus Brachyponera Emery in southwestern China (Hymenoptera Formicidae Ponerinae). [In Chinese.]. Journal of Southwest Forestry College 14:181-185. [1994-09] PDFExternal_link: 182 (China Brachyponera species key); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25]External_link: 164 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995aBolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 29:1037-1056. [1995-08] PDFExternal_link: 1051 (census); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10]External_link: 166, 302 (Cryptopone, Pachycondyla catalogues); Wu & Wang, 1995aWu, J.; Wang, C. 1995a. The ants of China. [In Chinese.]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, x + 214 pp. [1995-06]External_link: 45 (China species key); Xu, 1995bXu, Z. 1995b ("1994"). A taxonomic study of the genus Pachycondyla Smith in China (Hyminoptera [sic]: Formicidae: Ponerinae). Pp. 103-112 in: Xi, G.; Liu, Z.; Xu, S. (eds.) 1995. Entomological research. First issue. A collection of research papers commemorating 40 years of teaching by Professor Zheng Zhemin. [In Chinese.]. Xi'an: Shaanxi Normal University Press, 239 pp. [1995-04-01]External_link: 104 (China species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996Collingwood, C. A.; Agosti, D. 1996. Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Saudi Arabia (part 2). Fauna of Saudi Arabia 15:300-385. [1996-04-15] PDFExternal_link: 310 (Pachycondyla Saudi Arabia species key); Kim, Kim & Kim K, 1998Kim, B.-J.; Kim, J.-H.; Kim K 1998. Systematic study of Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 28:145-154. [1998-06]External_link: 147 (Korea species key); Shattuck, 1999Shattuck, S. O. 1999. Australian ants. Their biology and identification. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing, xi + 226 pp. [1999-01]External_link: 196 (Australia fauna synopsis); Zhou, 2001AZhou, S. 2001A. Ants of Guangxi. [In Chinese.]. Guilin, China: Guangxi Normal University Press, 255 pp. [2001-09-01] PDFExternal_link: 35 (China, Guangxi species key); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2003 ("2002"). Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Formation Green River and some other Middle Eocene deposits of North America. Russian Entomological Journal 11:411-436. [2003-06] PDFExternal_link: 424 (wingless female fossils, diagnosis); Wild, 2003Wild, A. L. 2003 ("2002"). The genus Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Paraguay. Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay 14:1-18. [2003-02] PDFExternal_link: 4 (Paraguay species key); Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDFExternal_link: 165 (synopsis); Wild, 2005Wild, A. L. 2005. Taxonomic revision of the Pachycondyla apicalis species complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 834:1-25. [2005-01-24] PDFExternal_link: 5 (Neoponera apicalis complex key); Yamane, 2007Yamane, S. 2007. Pachycondyla nigrita and related species in Southeast Asia. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80:650-663. [2007-09]External_link: 652 (Brachyponera nigrita species group key); Mackay & Mackay & Fernández & Arias-Penna, in Fernández, 2008AFernández, F. 2008A. Subfamilia Ponerinae s.str. Pp. 123-218 in: Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] [2008-12-26] PDFExternal_link: 172 (Neotropical species key); Terayama, 2009Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266. [2009] PDFExternal_link: 108 (Taiwan species keys); Heterick, 2009Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76:1-206. PDFExternal_link: 134 (south-western Australia species key); MacKay & MacKay, 2010MacKay, W. P.; MacKay, E. 2010. The systematics and biology of the New World ants of the genus Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, xii+642 pp. [2010-09-29] PDFExternal_link: 26, 107 (New World Pachycondyla species revision, species complexes key and species key); Dlussky & Wedmann, 2012Dlussky, G. M.; Wedmann, S. 2012. The poneromorph ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae: Amblyoponinae, Ectatomminae, Ponerinae) of Grube Messel, Germany: high biodiversity in the Eocene. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10:725-753. PDFExternal_link: 746 (Germany Eocene fossils key); Rakotonirina & Fisher, 2013Rakotonirina, J. C.; Fisher, B. L. 2013. Revision of the Pachycondyla sikorae species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Madagascar. Zootaxa 3683:447-485. [2013-07-05] PDFExternal_link (sikorae-group diagnosis, revision, species key): 104; Rakotonirina & Fisher, 2013Rakotonirina, J. C.; Fisher, B. L. 2013. Revision of the Pachycondyla wasmannii-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Malagasy region. Zootaxa 3609:101-141. [2013-01-29] PDFExternal_link (Madagascar wasmannii-group diagnosis, revision, species key): 449; Fernandes, Oliveira & Delabie, 2014Fernandes, I. O.; Oliveira, M. L. de; Delabie, J. H. C. 2014. Description of two new species in the Neotropical Pachycondyla foetida complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae) and taxonomic notes on the genus. Myrmecological News 19:133-163. [2014-01] PDFExternal_link (foetida-group diagnosis, revision, species key): 134; Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014Schmidt, C. A.; Shattuck, S. O. 2014. The Higher Classification of the Ant Subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a Review of Ponerine Ecology and Behavior. Zootaxa 3817(1):1-242. PDFExternal_link: 152 (diagnosis, synoptic description, distribution, ecology and behavior, phylogenetic and taxonomic considerations).

†fossil valid synonym subspecies unidentifiable/excluded from Formicidae unavailable/nomen nudum homonym original combination View full key