TemnothoraxMayr, 1861valid

Extant: 374 valid species (76 synonyms, 11 homonyms), 47 valid subspecies (66 synonyms, 6 homonyms)

Fossil: 7 valid species

Temnothorax Mayr, 1861Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. [1861] PDFExternal_link: 68. Type-species: Myrmica recedens, by monotypy. AntWeb AntWiki
Temnothorax in Myrmicidae, Myrmicidae: Emery, 1877bEmery, C. 1877b. Saggio di un ordinamento naturale dei Mirmicidei, e considerazioni sulla filogenesi delle formiche. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 9:67-83. [1877-03] PDFExternal_link: 81. Temnothorax in Myrmicinae: Mayr, 1861Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. [1861] PDFExternal_link: 68 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1865Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Novara Expedition 1865. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. [1865-12-14]External_link: 21 [Myrmicidae]; Emery & Forel, 1879a: 459 [Myrmicidae]; Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDFExternal_link}: 122. Temnothorax in Myrmicinae, Leptothoracini: Forel, 1917Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 51:229-253. [1917-03-08] PDFExternal_link: 245; Emery, 1924fEmery, C. 1924f ("1922"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C:207-397. [1924-06-24]External_link: 259; Donisthorpe, 1943hDonisthorpe, H. 1943h. A list of the type-species of the genera and subgenera of the Formicidae. [concl.]. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (11)10:721-737. [1943-11]External_link: 731. Temnothorax in Myrmicinae, Formicoxenini: Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25]External_link: 105. Temnothorax as subgenus of Leptothorax: Forel, 1892jForel, A. 1892j. Die Ameisenfauna Bulgariens. (Nebst biologischen Beobachtungen.). Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 42:305-318. [1892-09] PDFExternal_link: 315; Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDFExternal_link}: 122; Ruzsky, 1905bRuzsky, M. 1905b. The ants of Russia. (Formicariae Imperii Rossici). Systematics, geography and data on the biology of Russian ants. Part I. [In Russian.]. Trudy Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelei pri Imperatorskom Kazanskom Universitete 38(4-6):1-800. [1905]External_link: 607; Wheeler, 1910aWheeler, W. M. 1910a. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. [1910-03]External_link: 139; Emery, 1915eEmery, C. 1915e. Formiche raccolte nell'Eritrea dal Prof. F. Silvestri. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 10:3-26. [1915-05-10] PDFExternal_link: 24; Forel, 1915dForel, A. 1915d. Fauna insectorum helvetiae. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Die Ameisen der Schweiz. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 12(Beilage):1-77. [1915]External_link: 27; Emery, 1916aEmery, C. 1916a ("1915"). Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 47:79-275. [1916-11-30] PDFExternal_link: 176; Forel, 1917Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 51:229-253. [1917-03-08] PDFExternal_link: 245; Bondroit, 1918Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 87:1-174. [1918-12-24] PDFExternal_link: 117; Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139.External_link: 679; Emery, 1924fEmery, C. 1924f ("1922"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C:207-397. [1924-06-24]External_link: 259; Donisthorpe, 1943hDonisthorpe, H. 1943h. A list of the type-species of the genera and subgenera of the Formicidae. [concl.]. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (11)10:721-737. [1943-11]External_link: 731. Temnothorax as junior synonym of Leptothorax: Forel, 1890bForel, A. 1890b. Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algérie orientale. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 34:lxi-lxxvi. [1890-04-05] PDFExternal_link: lxxii; Baroni Urbani, 1971cBaroni Urbani, C. 1971c. Catalogo delle specie di Formicidae d'Italia (Studi sulla mirmecofauna d'Italia X). Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana 50:5-287. [1971-12-30] PDFExternal_link: 96; Brown, 1973bBrown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J.; Ayensu, E. S.; Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) 1973. Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, viii + 350 pp. [1973-01] PDFExternal_link}: 185 [provisional]; Bolton, 1982Bolton, B. 1982. Afrotropical species of the myrmicine ant genera Cardiocondyla, Leptothorax, Melissotarsus, Messor and Cataulacus (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 45:307-370. [1982-09-30] PDFExternal_link}: 319; Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25]External_link: 105. Temnothorax as genus: Bernard, 1967aBernard, F. 1967a ("1968"). Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. [1967-11] PDFExternal_link: 185; Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978. Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 519-556 in: Medvedev, G. S. (ed.) 1978. Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 3. Hymenoptera. Part 1. [In Russian.]. Opredeliteli Faune SSSR 119:3-584. [1978-11-02>]External_link: 543; Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) 1988. Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. [In Russian.]. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. [1987-12-22>]External_link: 79; Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 125; Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDFExternal_link: 270.
Genus Temnothorax references
See under Leptothorax for pre-2003 references. Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDFExternal_link: 270 (genus diagnosis). Radchenko, 2004Radchenko, A. 2004. A review of the ant genera Leptothorax Mayr and Temnothorax Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the eastern Palaearctic. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 50:109-137. [2004-11-24] PDFExternal_link: 131 (Eastern Palaearctic species key); Radchenko, 2005BRadchenko, A. 2005B. Monographic revision of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of North Korea. Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 55:127-221. [2005-06-30] PDFExternal_link: 193 (North Korea species key); Seifert, 2007Seifert, B. 2007. Die Ameisen Mittel- und Nordeuropas. Tauer: lutra Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, 368 pp. [2007-04]External_link: 120 (North and Central Europe species key); Terayama, 2009Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266. [2009] PDFExternal_link: 181 (Taiwan species key); Zhou, et al. 2010: 9 (China species key) ; Czechowski, Radchenko, et al. 2012: 366 (Poland species key); Bharti, Gul & Schulz, 2012: 334 (India species key); Snelling, Borowiec & Prebus, 2014Snelling, R. R.; Borowiec, M. L.; Prebus, M. M. 2014. Studies on California ants: a review of the genus Temnothorax (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). ZooKeys 372:27-89. [2014-01-22] PDFExternal_link: 80 (California species key).
Genera
Acalama Erebomyrma Oxyopomyrmex
Acanthidris Eriopheidole Paedalgus
Acanthognathus Eucryptocerus Palaeatta
Acanthomyrmex Euophthalma Paracrema
Acidomyrmex Eurhopalothrix Paracryptocerus
Acrocoelia Eutetramorium Parameranoplus
Acromyrmex Exocryptocerus Paramycetophylax
Acrostigma Fallomyrma Paramyrmica
Adelomyrmex Forelifidis Paranamyrma
Adlerzia Forelomyrmex Paraphacota
Aeromyrma Formicoxenus Paraphaenogaster
Afromyrma Formosimyrma Parapheidole
Afroxyidris Fushunomyrmex Paratopula
Alistruma Gallardomyrma Parholcomyrmex
Allomerus Gauromyrmex Parvimyrma
Allopheidole Geognomicus Pentastruma
Amauromyrmex Glamyromyrmex Perissomyrmex
Ancyridris Glyptomyrmex Peronomyrmex
Aneleus Goaligongidris Phacota
Anergates Goniomma Phalacromyrmex
Anergatides Goniothorax Pharaophanes
Anillomyrma Granisolenopsis Pheidolacanthinus
Anisopheidole Gymnomyrmex Pheidole
Antichthonidris Hagioxenus Pheidologeton
Antillaemyrmex Harnedia Phidola
Aphaenogaster Harpagoxenus Phidole
Apomyrmex Hendecapheidole Phidologeton
Apsychomyrmex Hendecatella Physatta
Apterostigma Heptacondylus Physocrema
Aratromyrmex Heptastruma Pilotrochus
Archaeomyrmex Hercynia Planimyrma
Archeatta Heteromyrmex Platystruma
Arctomyrmex Heteromyrmex Plesiomyrmex
Arnoldidris Hexadaceton Podomyrma
Asemorhoptrum Holcomyrmex Poecilomyrma
Asketogenys Huberia Pogonomyrmex
Aspididris Hylidris Polyhomoa
Atopogyne Hylomyrma Pristomyrmex
Atopomyrmex Hypocryptocerus Proatta
Atopula Hypopomyrmex Procryptocerus
Atta Icothorax Prodicroaspis
Attaichnus Idrisella Promeranoplus
Attomyrma Ilemomyrmex Promyrma
Attopsis Indomyrma Propodilobus
Austromorium Ireneella Propodomyrma
Baracidris Ireneidris Proscopomyrmex
Bariamyrma Ireneopone Prosopidris
Basiceros Irogera Protalaridris
Bilobomyrma Ischnomyrmex Protholcomyrmex
Bisolenopsis Ishakidris Protomognathus
Blepharidatta Isolcomyrmex Protomyrmica
Boltonidris Isopheidole Pseudoatta
Bondroitia Janetia Pseudopodomyrma
Borgmeierita Kalathomyrmex Pyramica
Brachytarsites Kartidris Quadristruma
Brownidris Kempfidris Quadrulicapito
Bruchomyrma Kyidris Quineangulicapito
Brunella Labauchena Recurvidris
Calyptomyrmex Labidogenys Rhopalomastix
Cardiocondyla Lachnomyrmex Rhopalothrix
Cardiopheidole Lampromyrmex Rhoptromyrmex
Carebara Laparomyrmex Rogeria
Carebarella Lasiomyrma Romblonella
Carebarelloides Lecanomyrma Rostromyrmex
Cataulacus Lenomyrmex Rotastruma
Caulomyrma Leonomyrma Royidris
Cephalomorium Leptomyrma Schizopelta
Cephalomyrmex Leptothorax Scrobopheidole
Cephalotes Lilidris Secostruma
Cephaloxys Limnomyrmex Sericomyrmex
Cepobroticus Liomyrmex Serrastruma
Ceratobasis Lobomyrmex Sifolinia
Ceratopheidole Lonchomyrmex Sinaphaenogaster
Chalepoxenus Loncyda Sinomyrmex
Chelaner Lophomyrmex Smithistruma
Chelystruma Lordomyrma Solenomyrma
Chimaeridris Lundella Solenops
Cladarogenys Machomyrma Solenopsis
Clarkistruma Macromischa Solenopsites
Clavipetiola Macromischoides Sommimyrma
Codiomyrmex Macropheidole Spelaeomyrmex
Codioxenus Malagidris Sphaerocrema
Colobocrema Manica Sphaerogasterites
Colobostruma Martia Sporocleptes
Conothoracoides Mayriella Stegomyrmex
Conothorax Megalomyrmex Stegopheidole
Corynomyrmex Meia Stenamma
Crateropsis Melissotarsus Stenothorax
Cratomyrmex Meranoplus Stereomyrmex
Creightonidris Mesomyrma Stigmomyrmex
Crematogaster Mesostruma Stiphromyrmex
Croesomyrmex Messor Strongylognathus
Cryptocerus Metapone Strumigenys
Cryptomyrmex Miccostruma Syllophopsis
Cyathocephalus Microdaceton Symbiomyrma
Cyathomyrmex Miosolenopsis Symmyrmica
Cyatta Mitara Sympheidole
Cyphoidris Monomorium Synsolenopsis
Cyphomannia Mycetagroicus Talaridris
Cyphomyrmex Mycetarotes Teleutomyrmex
Dacatria Mycetophylax Temnothorax
Dacetinops Mycetosoritis Terataner
Daceton Mychothorax Tetheamyrma
Dacetum Mycocepurus Tetramorium
Dacryon Myrafant Tetramyrma
Decacrema Myrmammophilus Tetrogmus
Decamorium Myrmecina Theryella
Decapheidole Myrmecinella Tingimyrmex
Deromyrma Myrmecites Tomognathus
Descolemyrma Myrmetaerus Trachymyrmex
Diagyne Myrmica Trachypheidole
Diaphoromyrma Myrmicaria Tranetera
Dichothorax Myrmicites Tranopelta
Dicroaspis Myrmicocrypta Trichomyrmex
Dilobocondyla Myrmisaraka Trichoscapa
Diplomorium Myrmoxenus Tricytarus
Diplorhoptrum Myrmus Triglyphothrix
Dodecamyrmica Nematocrema Trigonogaster
Dodous Neoatta Tropidomyrmex
Dolopomyrmex Neoblepharidatta Tyrannomyrmex
Dorisidris Neomyrma Veromessor
Doronomyrmex Neostruma Vitsika
Dorothea Nesomyrmex Vollenhovenia
Dyclona Nimbamyrma Vollenhovia
Dyomorium Nothidris Vombisidris
Dysedrognathus Nothomyrmica Wasmannia
Elasmopheidole Notomyrmex Weberidris
Electromyrmex Novomessor Weberistruma
Electropheidole Nystalomyrma Wessonistruma
Emeryia Ochetomyrmex Wheeleria
Eneria Octella Wheeleriella
Enneamerus Octostruma Wheelerimyrmex
Eocenidris Ocymyrmex Willowsiella
Eocenomyrma Odontomyrmex Wumyrmex
Eomyrmex Oecodoma Xenhyboma
Epelysidris Oecophthora Xenoaphaenogaster
Ephebomyrmex Oedaleocerus Xenometra
Epiatta Oligomyrmex Xenomyrmex
Epimyrma Orbigastrula Xeromyrmex
Epipheidole Orectognathus Xiphocrema
Epitritus Oreomyrma Xiphomyrmex
Epixenus Otomyrmex Zacryptocerus
Epoecus Oxyepoecus Zhangidris
Epopostruma Oxygyne
Equestrimessor Oxyidris
Species
abeli gilvus pallidipes
acutinodis glaber pallidus
adlerzi glaesarius pallipes
adustus globulinodis palustris
aeolius goniops pamiricus
affinis gordiagini pan
affinis gracilicornis pardoi
africana gracilis parvulus
aguayoi gracilis pastinifer
alaicus graecus pastoris
alayoi gredosi pelagosanus
alayorum gribodoi peninsularis
albipennis grouvellei pergandei
albispinus guanahacabibes personatus
algeriana guancha petiolata
algiricus gundlachi petiolatus
alienus hadrumetensis petri
alinae haira peyerimhoffi
allardycei hasardaghi pici
alpinus haytiana pictus
ambiguus heathii pilagens
amilcaris hengshanensis pinetorum
anacanthus hesperius pisarskii
anaphalantus himachalensis pithyusae
andersoni hispaniolae placivus
andrei hispidus platycephalus
androsanus huatuo platycnemis
anemicus huehuetenangoi poeyi
angulohumerus hyperisabellae politus
angustinodis hyrcanus porphyritis
angustinodus hystriculus praecreolus
angustulus ibericus pratostepposus
anira imias productus
annectens imitatrix proxima
annectens impurus pseudandrei
annexus indra pulchellus
annibalis inermis punctaticeps
anodonta inermis punctatissimus
anodontoides inquilinus punctithorax
anoplogynus insubricus punicans
antera interruptus pupseli
antigoni iowensis purpuratus
antoniae iranicus pyrenaeus
arboreus iris quasimodo
arcanus isabellae rabaudi
archangelskiji italicus racovitzai
archeri ixili recedens
arenarius jailensis reduncus
argentipes janushevi reticulatus
arimensis jaumei retifer
armouri jesus risii
arpini josephi rogeri
artvinensis juglandeti rosae
atlantis junipereti rothneyi
atomus kashmirensis rottenbergii
atrinodis kaszabi rougeti
augusti kefensis rudis
auresianus kemali rufescens
aveli kinomurai ruficornis
aztecus kirghizicus rufithorax
babuganicus kirillovi rugatulus
baeticus kiudiria rugiceps
balcanica knipovitshi ruginosus
balchashensis korbi rugithorax
balli koreanus rugosus
banao kraussei rugulosus
barbarus kruegeri rupestris
barbouri kubira russula
barroi kuixing rusticus
barryi kurilensis sachalinensis
basara kutteri saharensis
berlandi laciniatus salambo
bermudezi laestrygon salina
bernardi laetus sallei
bestelmeyeri laeviceps salvini
bicolor laevissima santra
bierigi lagrecai santschii
bikara latispina sardous
bimbache laurae satunini
birgitae leigong saudiae
blascoi leimu saxatilis
boccaris leoni saxonicus
boiteli lereddei scabriosus
bordagei leucacanthus scabripes
bradleyi leviceps schaufussi
brauneri leyeensis schaumii
brauneri lichtensteini schmittii
brauniella liebi schoedli
brevispinosus lindae schurri
brevispinus lindbergi schwarzi
bristoli liviae semenovi
brunea longaevus semiruber
bruneri longipilosus senectutis
brunneipes longispinosus sentosus
brunnescens lucayensis sergensis
brunneus luciliae serviculus
bucheti lugens sevanensis
bugnioni luteus shannxiensis
bulgaricus maerens shelkovnikovi
cabrerae makora siciliensis
caesari manni silvanus
cagnianti manni silvestrii
caguatan manni silvestrii
canescens maoerensis simesno
carinatus mariposa similis
carinthiacus marocana simlensis
caucasicus maryanae simpliciuscula
cenatus massiliensis singularis
cervantesi mauritanicus skwarrae
chandleri maurus slavonicus
chloana maximus smithi
chobauti maya smyrnensis
ciferrii mediorufus solerii
cingulata megalops sordidulus
ciscaucasicus mekira specularis
clivulus melanderi spinosior
clypeatus melanicus spinosus
cockerelli melanocephala splendens
cokendolpheri melanocephalus splendidiceps
coleenae melanoticus squamifer
colettae melas staegeri
confucii melinus steinbergi
congruus melleus stenotyle
convexus melnikovi stipaceus
cordieri menozzii stitzi
cornibrevis mexicanus stollii
corsica michali striatulus
corticalis microcellatus striatus
crassispinus microreticulatus subcingulatus
creightoni mimeuri subditivus
creolus minozzii suberis
crepuscularis minutissimus submuticus
creticus mirabilis subnudus
cristinae miserabilis susamyri
csikii mixtus taivanensis
cuneinodis mongolicus talassicus
curtulus monjauzei tamarae
curvispinosus monticola tarbinskii
curvispinosus mordax tauricus
curvithorax morongo tebessae
cuyagueteje mortoni tenuisculptus
cypridis muellerianus tenuispinus
dakotensis mulleri tergestina
darii mutabilis terricola
darlingtoni mutica terrigena
davisi myersi tesquorum
delaparti myrmiciformis texanus
denticulatus nadigi theryi
desertorum naeviventris tianpeng
desioi narinicus tianschanicus
dessyi nassanowi timida
dichroa nassonovi tirolensis
discoloratus natenzoni torrei
dissimilis neminan totonicapani
ditifet neomexicanus trabutii
duloticus nevadensis tramieri
eburneipes niger tricarinatus
elderensis nigra tricolor
eldoradensis nigricans tristis
elongatus nigricephala tristis
emeryi nigriceps tuberoaffinis
emmae nigripes tuberointerruptus
ergatogyna nigritus tuberonigriceps
ernesti nikitae tuberosa
exilis nipensis tuberum
facetus nitens tuneticus
festai nitidiceps turcicus
finzii nitidulus turritellus
firssovi nivarianus tuscaloosae
flavicornis nordmeyeri tyndalei
flavidulus normandi ucrainicus
flavispinus numidicus umbratipes
flavitarsis nuwuvi unifasciatointerruptus
flavus nylanderi unifasciatonigriceps
floridanus nylanderocorticalis unifasciatus
floridanus nylanderonigriceps universitatis
foreli nylanderotuberum usunkul
foreli nylanderounifasciatus versicolor
formosus obenbergeri villarensis
fortinodis obliquicanthus violaceus
foveatus obscurior volgensis
fragosus obscurior volubilis
fuentei obturator wardi
fultonii ocarinae werneri
fumosus occidentalis wheeleri
furunculus ocellatus wheeleri
fuscatus opaciabdomin whitfordi
fusciventris opacinoda williami
gaetulus opacipes wollastoni
galeatus opalina wroughtonii
gallae oraniensis wui
gallarum orchidus xanthos
gapsensis ornatipes yanwan
gazella oxianus zabelini
gentilis oxynodis zhejiangensis
gibbifer paiute

†fossil valid synonym subspecies unidentifiable/excluded from Formicidae unavailable/nomen nudum homonym original combination View full key